civil servants, all jinshi graduates, parade before Emporer
Guangxu (ruled 1875-1908) on the occasion of his wedding.
the Sui and Tang dynasties there were several types of open
civil service examination. Most popular were the Classical Examination,
which involved tests in the Confucian classics, and the Literary
Examination (jinshi), which demanded a less extensive knowledge
of the classics but required candidates to write various forms
of verse. In both tests candidates had to write essays on moral
principles and practical administrative problems, and to show
a good knowledge of Chinese history.
The Land of the Heavenly Dragon edited by Professor Edward